美國會計師考試--財務會計(FAR)此單科目將開始導入IFRS 相關問題

2011 CPA EXAM CSOs: Financial Accounting and Reporting (FAR)

這是老師為解答很多考生對明年2011 USCPA 美國會計師考試財務會計(FAR)此單科目將開始導入IFRS 相關問題,老師初步判斷,依照AICPA的一貫作法,應會逐漸導入新的議題及準則,以防仍在準備考試中的考生受到太大衝擊,影響其考試權益。

IFRS 已為新的趨勢之一,對IFRS 有興趣或工作上有此需求的人士,此為吸收新知、提昇自己國際競爭力的最佳時間點。




Approved by the Board of Examiners American Institute of Certified Public Accountants May 15, 2009 Effective Date: January 1, 2011

The outline portions of the content specifications identify the extent of the technical content to be tested on each of the four sections of the Uniform CPA Examination. The outlines list the areas, groups, and topics to be tested in the following manner:

Financial Accounting and Reporting (FAR)
The Financial Accounting and Reporting section tests knowledge and understanding of the financial reporting framework used by business enterprises, not-for-profit organizations, and governmental entities. The financial reporting frameworks that are included in this section are those issued by the standard-setters identified in the references to these CSOs, which include standards issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, the International Accounting Standards Board, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, and the Governmental Accounting Standards Board. In addition to demonstrating knowledge and understanding of accounting principles, candidates are required to demonstrate the skills required to apply that knowledge in performing financial reporting and other tasks as certified public accountants. To demonstrate such knowledge and skills, candidates will be expected to perform the following tasks:

• Identify and understand the differences between financial statements prepared on the basis of accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS).

• Prepare and/or review source documents including account classification, and enter data into subsidiary and general ledgers.

• Calculate amounts for financial statement components.

• Reconcile the general ledger to the subsidiary ledgers or underlying account details.

• Prepare account reconciliation and related schedules; analyze accounts for unusual fluctuations and make necessary adjustments.

• Prepare consolidating and eliminating entries for the period.

• Identify financial accounting and reporting methods and select those that are appropriate.

• Prepare consolidated financial statements, including balance sheets, income statements, and statements of retained earnings, equity, comprehensive income, and cash flows.

• Prepare appropriate notes to the financial statements.

• Analyze financial statements including analysis of accounts, variances, trends, and ratios.

• Exercise judgment in the application of accounting principles.

• Apply judgment to evaluate assumptions and methods underlying estimates, including fair value measures of financial statement components.

• Produce required financial statement filings in order to meet regulatory or reporting requirements (e.g. Form 10-Q, 10-K, Annual Report).

• Determine appropriate accounting treatment for new or unusual transactions and evaluate the economic substance of transactions in making the determinations.

• Research relevant professional literature.

The outline below specifies the knowledge in which candidates are required to demonstrate proficiency:

  1. Conceptual Framework, Standards, Standard Setting, and Presentation of Financial Statements (17% - 23%)


A. Process by which Accounting Standards are Set and Roles of Accounting Standard-Setting Bodies   (有關設立會計準則的程序及單位角色)

1. U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
2. Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
3. International Accounting Standards Board (IASB)
4. Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB)

B. Conceptual Framework (概念架構)

1. Financial reporting by business entities
2. Financial reporting by not-for-profit (nongovernmental) entities
3. Financial reporting by state and local governmental entities

C. Financial Reporting, Presentation and Disclosures in General-Purpose Financial Statements ( 一般財務報表的報告、呈現、揭露)

1. Balance sheet
2. Income statement
3. Statement of comprehensive income
4. Statement of changes in equity
5. Statement of cash flows
6. Notes to financial statements
7. Consolidated and combined financial statements
8. First-time adoption of IFRS ( 首次採用 IFRS)
D. SEC Reporting Requirements (e.g. Form 10-Q, 10-K)  (SEC 報告要求 (年報、季報) )

E. Other Financial Statement Presentations, including Other Comprehensive Bases of Accounting (OCBOA)
 (其它財報呈現方式,包括 OCBOA)

1. Cash basis
2. Modified cash basis
3. Income tax basis
4. Personal financial statements
5. Financial statements of employee benefit plans/trusts


II. Financial Statement Accounts: Recognition, Measurement, Valuation, Calculation, Presentation, and Disclosures (27% - 33%)

A. Cash and Cash Equivalents
B. Receivables
C. Inventory
D. Property, Plant, and Equipment
E. Investments
1. Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
2. Available for sale financial assets
3. Held-to-maturity investments
4. Joint ventures
5. Equity method investments (investments in associates)
6. Investment property
F. Intangible Assets – Goodwill and Other
G. Payables and Accrued Liabilities
H. Deferred Revenue
I. Long-Term Debt (Financial Liabilities)
1. Notes payable
2. Bonds payable
3. Debt with conversion features and other options
4. Modifications and extinguishments
5. Troubled debt restructurings by debtors
6. Debt covenant compliance
J. Equity
K. Revenue Recognition
L. Costs and Expenses
M. Compensation and Benefits
1. Compensated absences
2. Deferred compensation arrangements
3. Nonretirement postemployment benefits
4. Retirement benefits
5. Stock compensation (share-based payments)
N. Income Taxes


III. Specific Transactions, Events and Disclosures: Recognition, Measurement, Valuation, Calculation, Presentation, and Disclosures (27% - 33%) (特定交易、事件、揭露: 認列、衡量、評價、計算、呈現;、揭露)

A. Accounting Changes and Error Corrections
B. Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations
C. Business Combinations
D. Consolidation (including Off-Balance Sheet Transactions, Variable-Interest Entities and Noncontrolling Interests)
E. Contingencies, Commitments, and Guarantees (Provisions)
F. Earnings Per Share
G. Exit or Disposal Activities and Discontinued Operations
H. Extraordinary and Unusual Items
I. Fair Value Measurements, Disclosures, and Reporting
J. Derivatives and Hedge Accounting
K. Foreign Currency Transactions and Translation
L. Impairment
M. Interim Financial Reporting
N. Leases
O. Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity
P. Nonmonetary Transactions (Barter Transactions)
Q. Related Parties and Related Party Transactions
R. Research and Development Costs
S. Risks and Uncertainties
T. Segment Reporting
U. Software Costs
V. Subsequent Events
W. Transfers and Servicing of Financial Assets and Derecognition


IV. Governmental Accounting and Reporting (8% - 12%)

A. Governmental Accounting Concepts
1. Measurement focus and basis of accounting
2. Fund accounting concepts and applications
3. Budgetary accounting

B. Format and Content of Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR)
1. Government-wide financial statements
2. Governmental funds financial statements
3. Proprietary funds financial statements
4. Fiduciary funds financial statements
5. Notes to financial statements
6. Management’s discussion and analysis
7. Required supplementary information (RSI) other than Management’s Discussion and Analysis
8. Combining statements and individual fund statements and schedules
9. Deriving government-wide financial statements and reconciliation requirements

C. Financial Reporting Entity, Including Blended and Discrete Component Units


D. Typical Items and Specific Types of Transactions and Events: Recognition, Measurement, Valuation, Calculation, and Presentation in Governmental Entity Financial Statements

1. Net assets and components thereof
2. Fund balances and components thereof
3. Capital assets and infrastructure assets
4. General long-term liabilities
5. Interfund activity, including transfers
6. Nonexchange revenue transactions
7. Expenditures
8. Special items
9. Encumbrances

E. Accounting and Reporting for Governmental Not-for-Profit Organizations


V. Not-for-Profit (Nongovernmental) Accounting and Reporting (8% - 12%)
  (非營利機構 (非政府) 會計及報告)

A. Financial Statements

1. Statement of financial position
2. Statement of activities
3. Statement of cash flows
4. Statement of functional expenses

B. Typical Items and Specific Types of Transactions and Events: Recognition, Measurement, Valuation, Calculation, and Presentation in Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations

1. Support, revenues, and contributions
2. Types of restrictions on resources
3. Types of net assets
4. Expenses, including depreciation and functional expenses
5. Investments


References – Financial Accounting and Reporting
( 參考資料- 財務會計與報告)

• Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification

• Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) Codification of Governmental Accounting and Financial Reporting Standards

• Standards Issued by the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC):
o Regulation S-X of the Code of Federal Regulations (17 CFR Part 210)
o Financial Reporting Releases (FRR)/Accounting Series Releases (ASR)
o Interpretive Releases (IR)
o SEC Staff Guidance in Staff Accounting Bulletins (SAB)
o SEC Staff Guidance in EITF Topic D and SEC Staff Observer Comments

• International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), International Accounting Standards (IAS), and Interpretations

• AICPA Auditing and Accounting Guides

• Current textbooks on accounting for business enterprises, not-for-profit organizations, and governmental entities